Location (sign language)

In sign language, location, or tab, refers to specific places that the hands occupy as they are used to form words. In Stokoe terminology it is known as the TAB, an abbreviation of tabula. Location is one of five components of a sign, along with handshape (DEZ), orientation (ORI), movement (SIG), and facial-body expression. Different sign languages make use of different locations. For more information please contact Dragoman Translation offices.


In sign language, handshape, or dez, refers to the distinctive configuration of that the hands take as they are used to form words. In Stokoe terminology it is known as the DEZ, an abbreviation of designator. Handshape is one of five components of a sign, along with location (TAB), orientation (ORI), movement (SIG), and facial-body expression. Different sign languages make use of different handshapes.

Movement (sign language)

In sign language, movement, or sig, refers to the distinctive hand actions that form words. In William Stokoe’s terminology, it is the SIG, an abbreviation of signation. Movement is one of five components of a sign—with handshape (DEZ), orientation (ORI), location (sign language) (TAB), and facial-body expression. Different sign languages use different types of movement. Some treatments distinguish movement and hold—signs, or parts of signs, that involve motion vs.

Placing “Only” Correctly

Posted Posted in Word Usage

Only is often misplaced in a sentence. We must be careful about its usage to avoid confusing our readers. Learning correct usage of grammatical modifiers is a hard work and it is worth all the effort. Only should go right before the word or phrase it modifies. “Only I said I cannot attend the party” means that I was the only one to decline the invitation. “I only said I cannot attend the party” means that I said nothing but […]

On Varying Sentence Length

Posted Posted in Sentences, Transcreation, Translation_Tips

This sentence has five words. Here are five more words. Five-word sentences are fine. But several together become monotonous. Listen to what is happening. This writing is getting boring. The sound of it drones. It’s like struck record. The ear demands some variety. Now listen. I vary the sentence length, and I create music. Music. The writing sings. It has a pleasant rhythm, a lilt, a harmony. I use short sentences. And I use the sentences of medium length. And […]

define/definition – Misused Words

Posted 1 CommentPosted in Translation_Tips, Uncategorized, Word Usage

This article series aims to eliminate usage errors and help non-native speakers to write clearly and fluently. We suggest that you always do proper research and use style guides effectively. For anything you are not sure of, feel free to ask us. Misused word define/definition Alternatives establish, lay down, set out, draft, establishment, drafting, design. Explanation In English, “define” means “to state the precise meaning of” (for example “we have already defined the meaning of control”). It does not mean […]

Hyphen, En Dash or Em Dash?

Posted Posted in Editor Notes, Translation_Tips

Let’s clear up the confusion surrounding the use of hyphen, en dash and em dash. The hyphen (-) Dragoman follows the AP Stylebook, so we use hyphens to indicate ranges or to clarify that we are using a compound modifier. Please use no spaces before or after the hyphen. Examples: The first leg of the training was held in Şanlıurfa on May 22-23, 2019. Our state-of-the-art warehouse facilities are 80-percent automated. Each year, we endeavor to create a first-rate academic […]

Starting a Sentence With a Number

Posted Posted in Sentences, Style, Translation_Tips

Never begin a sentence with a numeral. There is one exception: a numeral that identifies a calendar year. When translating press releases or annual reports, we occasionally come across situations where we have to place the percentage at the beginning of the sentence. E.g.: Twenty-eight percent of the participants passed the test last year. Although this sentence is correct, it looks odd. Where possible, recast the sentence so that the numbers are expressed in figures. Better: Last year, 28 percent […]

Figures Troubleshooting

Posted Leave a commentPosted in Translation_Tips

Style guides differ because they are written with their specific audience in mind. Bloomberg will present their copy differently to The New York Times because Bloomberg primarily focus on finance and figures. One of the principal reasons for a style guide is to ensure consistency. Our translators work from a wide range of languages and are based around the world. The style guide is what helps ensure all Dragoman output is presented in a professional, clear and uniform manner. Adhering to Dragoman […]

Style Guide for Medical Journals

Posted Leave a commentPosted in Style, Translation_Tips

As we continue to gain more clients from the medical community, a few style notes on how to translate medical files has become necessary. A full style guide has not yet been written. One option is to subscribe to the online style guide of the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA). In the interim, please follow these rules of style: Use the Dragoman Style Guide for Figures. This style guide applies to ALL copy. Use the Dragoman Style Guide […]